The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container

Apache Tomcat 7

Version 7.0.27, Mar 31 2012
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Manager App HOW-TO

Table of Contents
Introduction

In many production environments, it is very useful to have the capability to deploy a new web application, or undeploy an existing one, without having to shut down and restart the entire container. In addition, you can request an existing application to reload itself, even if you have not declared it to be reloadable in the Tomcat server configuration file.

To support these capabilities, Tomcat includes a web application (installed by default on context path /manager) that supports the following functions:

  • Deploy a new web application from the uploaded contents of a WAR file.
  • Deploy a new web application, on a specified context path, from the server file system.
  • List the currently deployed web applications, as well as the sessions that are currently active for those web apps.
  • Reload an existing web application, to reflect changes in the contents of /WEB-INF/classes or /WEB-INF/lib.
  • List the OS and JVM property values.
  • List the available global JNDI resources, for use in deployment tools that are preparing <ResourceLink> elements nested in a <Context> deployment description.
  • Start a stopped application (thus making it available again).
  • Stop an existing application (so that it becomes unavailable), but do not undeploy it.
  • Undeploy a deployed web application and delete its document base directory (unless it was deployed from file system).

A default Tomcat installation includes the Manager. To add an instance of the Manager web application Context to a new host install the manager.xml context configuration file in the $CATALINA_BASE/conf/[enginename]/[hostname] folder. Here is an example:

<Context privileged="true"
         docBase="/usr/local/kinetic/tomcat7/server/webapps/manager">
</Context>

If you have Tomcat configured to support multiple virtual hosts (websites) you would need to configure a Manager for each.

There are three ways to use the Manager web application.

  • As an application with a user interface you use in your browser. Here is an example URL where you can replace localhost with your website host name: http://localhost/manager/html/ .
  • A minimal version using HTTP requests only which is suitable for use by scripts setup by system administrators. Commands are given as part of the request URI, and responses are in the form of simple text that can be easily parsed and processed. See Supported Manager Commands for more information.
  • A convenient set of task definitions for the Ant (version 1.4 or later) build tool. See Executing Manager Commands With Ant for more information.
Configuring Manager Application Access

The description below uses the variable name $CATALINA_BASE to refer the base directory against which most relative paths are resolved. If you have not configured Tomcat for multiple instances by setting a CATALINA_BASE directory, then $CATALINA_BASE will be set to the value of $CATALINA_HOME, the directory into which you have installed Tomcat.

It would be quite unsafe to ship Tomcat with default settings that allowed anyone on the Internet to execute the Manager application on your server. Therefore, the Manager application is shipped with the requirement that anyone who attempts to use it must authenticate themselves, using a username and password that have one of manager-** roles associated with them (the role name depends on what functionality is required). Further, there is no username in the default users file ($CATALINA_BASE/conf/tomcat-users.xml) that is assigned to those roles. Therefore, access to the Manager application is completely disabled by default.

You can find the role names in the web.xml file of the Manager web application. The available roles are:

  • manager-gui — Access to the HTML interface.
  • manager-status — Access to the "Server Status" page only.
  • manager-script — Access to the tools-friendly plain text interface that is described in this document, and to the "Server Status" page.
  • manager-jmx — Access to JMX proxy interface and to the "Server Status" page.

The HTML interface is protected against CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) attacks, but the text and JMX interfaces cannot be protected. To maintain the CSRF protection:

  • Users with the manager-gui role should not be granted the manager-script or manager-jmx roles.
  • If you use web browser to access the Manager application using a user that has either manager-script or manager-jmx roles (for example for testing the plain text or JMX interfaces), then all windows of the browser MUST be closed afterwards to terminate the session.

Note that JMX proxy interface is effectively low-level root-like administrative interface of Tomcat. One can do a lot, if he knows what commands to call. You should be cautious when enabling the manager-jmx role.

To enable access to the Manager web application, you must either create a new username/password combination and associate one of the manager-** roles with it, or add a manager-** role to some existing username/password combination. As the majority of this document describes the commands of plain textual interface, let the role name for further example to be manager-script. Exactly how the usernames/passwords are configured depends on which Realm implementation you are using:

  • MemoryRealm — This one is configured in the default $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml. If you have not configured it differently, or replaced it with a different Realm implementation, this realm reads an XML-format file stored at $CATALINA_BASE/conf/tomcat-users.xml, which can be edited with any text editor. This file contains an XML <user> for each individual user, which might look something like this:
    <user name="craigmcc" password="secret" roles="standard,manager-script" />
    
    which defines the username and password used by this individual to log on, and the role names he or she is associated with. You can add the manager-script role to the comma-delimited roles attribute for one or more existing users, and/or create new users with that assigned role.
  • JDBCRealm — Your user and role information is stored in a database accessed via JDBC. Add the manager-script role to one or more existing users, and/or create one or more new users with this role assigned, following the standard procedures for your environment.
  • JNDIRealm — Your user and role information is stored in a directory server accessed via LDAP. Add the manager-script role to one or more existing users, and/or create one or more new users with this role assigned, following the standard procedures for your environment.

The first time you attempt to issue one of the Manager commands described in the next section, you will be challenged to log on using BASIC authentication. The username and password you enter do not matter, as long as they identify a valid user in the users database who possesses the role manager-script.

In addition to the password restrictions the Manager web application could be restricted by the remote IP address or host by adding a RemoteAddrValve or RemoteHostValve. See valves documentation for details. Here is an example of restricting access to the localhost by IP address:

<Context privileged="true">
         <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve"
                allow="127\.0\.0\.1"/>
</Context>
Supported Manager Commands

All commands that the Manager application knows how to process are specified in a single request URI like this:

http://{host}:{port}/manager/text/{command}?{parameters}

where {host} and {port} represent the hostname and port number on which Tomcat is running, {command} represents the Manager command you wish to execute, and {parameters} represents the query parameters that are specific to that command. In the illustrations below, customize the host and port appropriately for your installation.

Most commands accept one or more of the following query parameters:

  • path - The context path (including the leading slash) of the web application you are dealing with. To select the ROOT web application, specify "/". NOTE - It is not possible to perform administrative commands on the Manager application itself.
  • war - URL of a web application archive (WAR) file, pathname of a directory which contains the web application, or a Context configuration ".xml" file. You can use URLs in any of the following formats:
    • file:/absolute/path/to/a/directory - The absolute path of a directory that contains the unpacked version of a web application. This directory will be attached to the context path you specify without any changes.
    • file:/absolute/path/to/a/webapp.war - The absolute path of a web application archive (WAR) file. This is valid only for the /deploy command, and is the only acceptable format to that command.
    • jar:file:/absolute/path/to/a/warfile.war!/ - The URL to a local web application archive (WAR) file. You can use any syntax that is valid for the JarURLConnection class for reference to an entire JAR file.
    • file:/absolute/path/to/a/context.xml - The absolute path of a web application Context configuration ".xml" file which contains the Context configuration element.
    • directory - The directory name for the web application context in the Host's application base directory.
    • webapp.war - The name of a web application war file located in the Host's application base directory.

Each command will return a response in text/plain format (i.e. plain ASCII with no HTML markup), making it easy for both humans and programs to read). The first line of the response will begin with either OK or FAIL, indicating whether the requested command was successful or not. In the case of failure, the rest of the first line will contain a description of the problem that was encountered. Some commands include additional lines of information as described below.

Internationalization Note - The Manager application looks up its message strings in resource bundles, so it is possible that the strings have been translated for your platform. The examples below show the English version of the messages.

Deploy A New Application Remotely
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?path=/foo

Upload the web application archive (WAR) file that is specified as the request data in this HTTP PUT request, install it into the appBase directory of our corresponding virtual host, and start , using the directory name or the war file name without the .war extension as the path. The application can later be undeployed (and the corresponding application directory removed) by use of the /undeploy command.

The .WAR file may include Tomcat specific deployment configuration, by including a Context configuration XML file in /META-INF/context.xml.

URL parameters include:

  • update: When set to true, any existing update will be undeployed first. The default value is set to false.
  • tag: Specifying a tag name, this allows associating the deployed webapp with a version number. The application version can be later redeployed when needed using only the tag.

NOTE - This command is the logical opposite of the /undeploy command.

If installation and startup is successful, you will receive a response like this:

OK - Deployed application at context path /foo

Otherwise, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Application already exists at path /foo

    The context paths for all currently running web applications must be unique. Therefore, you must undeploy the existing web application using this context path, or choose a different context path for the new one. The update parameter may be specified as a parameter on the URL, with a value of true to avoid this error. In that case, an undeploy will be performed on an existing application before performing the deployment.

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to start the new web application. Check the Tomcat logs for the details, but likely explanations include problems parsing your /WEB-INF/web.xml file, or missing classes encountered when initializing application event listeners and filters.

Deploy A New Application from a Local Path

Deploy and start a new web application, attached to the specified context path (which must not be in use by any other web application). This command is the logical opposite of the /undeploy command.

There are a number of different ways the deploy command can be used.

Deploy a version of a previously deployed webapp

This can be used to deploy a previous version of a web application, which has been deployed using the tag attribute. Note that the work directory for the Manager webapp will contain the previously deployed WARs; removing it would make the deployment fail.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?path=/footoo&tag=footag

Deploy a Directory or WAR by URL

Deploy a web application directory or ".war" file located on the Tomcat server. If no path is specified, the directory name or the war file name without the ".war" extension is used as the path. The war parameter specifies a URL (including the file: scheme) for either a directory or a web application archive (WAR) file. The supported syntax for a URL referring to a WAR file is described on the Javadocs page for the java.net.JarURLConnection class. Use only URLs that refer to the entire WAR file.

In this example the web application located in the directory /path/to/foo on the Tomcat server is deployed as the web application context named /footoo.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?path=/footoo&war=file:/path/to/foo

In this example the ".war" file /path/to/bar.war on the Tomcat server is deployed as the web application context named /bar. Notice that there is no path parameter so the context path defaults to the name of the web application archive file without the ".war" extension.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?war=jar:file:/path/to/bar.war!/

Deploy a Directory or War from the Host appBase

Deploy a web application directory or ".war" file located in your Host appBase directory. The directory name or the war file name without the ".war" extension is used as the path.

In this example the web application located in a sub directory named foo in the Host appBase directory of the Tomcat server is deployed as the web application context named /foo. Notice that the context path used is the name of the web application directory.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?war=foo

In this example the ".war" file bar.war located in your Host appBase directory on the Tomcat server is deployed as the web application context named /bar.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?war=bar.war

Deploy using a Context configuration ".xml" file

If the Host deployXML flag is set to true you can deploy a web application using a Context configuration ".xml" file and an optional ".war" file or web application directory. The context path is not used when deploying a web application using a context ".xml" configuration file.

A Context configuration ".xml" file can contain valid XML for a web application Context just as if it were configured in your Tomcat server.xml configuration file. Here is an example:

<Context path="/foobar" docBase="/path/to/application/foobar">
</Context>

When the optional war parameter is set to the URL for a web application ".war" file or directory it overrides any docBase configured in the context configuration ".xml" file.

Here is an example of deploying an application using a Context configuration ".xml" file.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?config=file:/path/context.xml

Here is an example of deploying an application using a Context configuration ".xml" file and a web application ".war" file located on the server.

http://localhost:8080/manager/text/deploy?config=file:/path/context.xml&war=jar:file:/path/bar.war!/

Deployment Notes

If the Host is configured with unpackWARs=true and you deploy a war file, the war will be unpacked into a directory in your Host appBase directory.

If the application war or directory is installed in your Host appBase directory and either the Host is configured with autoDeploy=true or the Context path must match the directory name or war file name without the ".war" extension.

For security when untrusted users can manage web applications, the Host deployXML flag can be set to false. This prevents untrusted users from deploying web applications using a configuration XML file and also prevents them from deploying application directories or ".war" files located outside of their Host appBase.

Deploy Response

If installation and startup is successful, you will receive a response like this:

OK - Deployed application at context path /foo

Otherwise, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Application already exists at path /foo

    The context paths for all currently running web applications must be unique. Therefore, you must undeploy the existing web application using this context path, or choose a different context path for the new one. The update parameter may be specified as a parameter on the URL, with a value of true to avoid this error. In that case, an undeploy will be performed on an existing application before performing the deployment.

  • Document base does not exist or is not a readable directory

    The URL specified by the war parameter must identify a directory on this server that contains the "unpacked" version of a web application, or the absolute URL of a web application archive (WAR) file that contains this application. Correct the value specified by the war parameter.

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to start the new web application. Check the Tomcat logs for the details, but likely explanations include problems parsing your /WEB-INF/web.xml file, or missing classes encountered when initializing application event listeners and filters.

  • Invalid application URL was specified

    The URL for the directory or web application that you specified was not valid. Such URLs must start with file:, and URLs for a WAR file must end in ".war".

  • Invalid context path was specified

    The context path must start with a slash character. To reference the ROOT web application use "/".

  • Context path must match the directory or WAR file name:
    If the application war or directory is installed in your Host appBase directory and either the Host is configured with autoDeploy=true the Context path must match the directory name or war file name without the ".war" extension.
  • Only web applications in the Host web application directory can be installed
    If the Host deployXML flag is set to false this error will happen if an attempt is made to deploy a web application directory or ".war" file outside of the Host appBase directory.
List Currently Deployed Applications
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/list

List the context paths, current status (running or stopped), and number of active sessions for all currently deployed web applications. A typical response immediately after starting Tomcat might look like this:

OK - Listed applications for virtual host localhost
/webdav:running:0
/examples:running:0
/manager:running:0
/:running:0
Reload An Existing Application
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/reload?path=/examples

Signal an existing application to shut itself down and reload. This can be useful when the web application context is not reloadable and you have updated classes or property files in the /WEB-INF/classes directory or when you have added or updated jar files in the /WEB-INF/lib directory.

NOTE: The /WEB-INF/web.xml web application configuration file is not reread on a reload. If you have made changes to your web.xml file you must stop then start the web application.

If this command succeeds, you will see a response like this:

OK - Reloaded application at context path /examples

Otherwise, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to restart the web application. Check the Tomcat logs for the details.

  • Invalid context path was specified

    The context path must start with a slash character. To reference the ROOT web application use "/".

  • No context exists for path /foo

    There is no deployed application on the context path that you specified.

  • No context path was specified
    The path parameter is required.
  • Reload not supported on WAR deployed at path /foo
    Currently, application reloading (to pick up changes to the classes or web.xml file) is not supported when a web application is deployed directly from a WAR file. It only works when the web application is deployed from an unpacked directory. If you are using a WAR file, you should undeploy and then deploy or deploy with the update parameter the application again to pick up your changes.
List OS and JVM Properties
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/serverinfo

Lists information about the Tomcat version, OS, and JVM properties.

If an error occurs, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to enumerate the system properties. Check the Tomcat logs for the details.

List Available Global JNDI Resources
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/resources[?type=xxxxx]

List the global JNDI resources that are available for use in resource links for context configuration files. If you specify the type request parameter, the value must be the fully qualified Java class name of the resource type you are interested in (for example, you would specify javax.sql.DataSource to acquire the names of all available JDBC data sources). If you do not specify the type request parameter, resources of all types will be returned.

Depending on whether the type request parameter is specified or not, the first line of a normal response will be:

  OK - Listed global resources of all types

or

  OK - Listed global resources of type xxxxx

followed by one line for each resource. Each line is composed of fields delimited by colon characters (":"), as follows:

  • Global Resource Name - The name of this global JNDI resource, which would be used in the global attribute of a <ResourceLink> element.
  • Global Resource Type - The fully qualified Java class name of this global JNDI resource.

If an error occurs, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to enumerate the global JNDI resources. Check the Tomcat logs for the details.

  • No global JNDI resources are available

    The Tomcat server you are running has been configured without global JNDI resources.

Session Statistics
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/sessions?path=/examples

Display the default session timeout for a web application, and the number of currently active sessions that fall within ten-minute ranges of their actual timeout times. For example, after restarting Tomcat and then executing one of the JSP samples in the /examples web app, you might get something like this:

OK - Session information for application at context path /examples
Default maximum session inactive interval 30 minutes
30 - <40 minutes:1 sessions
Start an Existing Application
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/start?path=/examples

Signal a stopped application to restart, and make itself available again. Stopping and starting is useful, for example, if the database required by your application becomes temporarily unavailable. It is usually better to stop the web application that relies on this database rather than letting users continuously encounter database exceptions.

If this command succeeds, you will see a response like this:

OK - Started application at context path /examples

Otherwise, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to start the web application. Check the Tomcat logs for the details.

  • Invalid context path was specified

    The context path must start with a slash character. To reference the ROOT web application use "/".

  • No context exists for path /foo

    There is no deployed application on the context path that you specified.

  • No context path was specified
    The path parameter is required.
Stop an Existing Application
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/stop?path=/examples

Signal an existing application to make itself unavailable, but leave it deployed. Any request that comes in while an application is stopped will see an HTTP error 404, and this application will show as "stopped" on a list applications command.

If this command succeeds, you will see a response like this:

OK - Stopped application at context path /examples

Otherwise, the response will start with FAIL and include an error message. Possible causes for problems include:

  • Encountered exception

    An exception was encountered trying to stop the web application. Check the Tomcat logs for the details.

  • Invalid context path was specified

    The context path must start with a slash character. To reference the ROOT web application use "/".

  • No context exists for path /foo

    There is no deployed application on the context path that you specified.

  • No context path was specified
    The path parameter is required.
Undeploy an Existing Application
http://localhost:8080/manager/text/undeploy?path=/examples

WARNING - This command will delete any web application artifacts that exist within appBase directory (typically "webapps") for this virtual host. This will delete the the application .WAR, if present, the application directory resulting either from a deploy in unpacked form or from .WAR expansion as well as the XML Context definition from $CATALINA_BASE/conf/[enginename]/[hostname]/ directory. If you simply want to take an application out of service, you should use the /stop command instead.

Signal an existing application to gracefully shut itself down, and remove it from Tomcat (which also makes this context path available for reuse later). In addition, the document root directory is removed,